Reference List

References provide the necessary information for readers to be able to identify and retrieve the sources cited in the text of your paper.

An entry in a reference list generally has four elements:

  • Author(s): Who is responsible for this work?
  • Year or Date: When was this work published?
  • Title: What is this work called?
  • Source: Where can I retrieve this work?
    • Title of publication the work appears in
    • Location of the work within the source (e.g. volume, issue, page number)
    • Digital retrieval information (Either a DOI or URL)

Read More on the APA Style Website

Author Element

The table below shows examples of how to format the author element of a reference list entry. For more information and formatting the author, date, title, and source elements of your references, please visit the APA Style and Grammar website.


Type of citation Reference list example
One author Author, A. A.
Two authors Author, A. A., & Author, B. B.
Three to 20 authors Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C.
More than 21 authors Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., . . . Author, Z. Z.
Organization/Group author National Institute of Mental Health.