Audiovisual Media

General Format & Notes

Motion Picture

Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (year). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of Origin: Studio.

Music Recording

Writer, A. A. (year). Title of song [Recorded by B. B. Artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, record, cassette, etc.]. Location: Label. (Date of recording if different from song copyright date)

  • List the primary contributors in the author position and use parentheses to identify their contribution.
  • If source is freely available online, replace location and label/studio information with the retrieval URL in the following format: Retrieved from
    If the video must be purchased and isn't widely available, then use the following format:
    Available from
  • For an episode from a TV or radio series, format your reference as you would a book chapter with the writer and director in the author position and the producer in the editor position. See example in list below.

Films, Videos, & TV

Motion Picture

Smith, J. D. (Producer), & Smithee, A. F. (Director). (2001). Really big disaster movie [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.


American Psychological Association (Producer). (2000). Responding therapeutically to patient expressions of sexual attraction [DVD]. Available from

Television Series

Bellisario, D. L. (Producer). (1992). Exciting action show [Television series]. Hollywood, CA: American Broadcasting Company.

Episode in a Television Series

Wendy, S. W. (Writer), & Martian, I. R. (Director). (1986). The rising angel and the falling ape [Television series episode]. In D. Dude (Producer), Creatures and monsters. Los Angeles, CA: Belarus Studios.

Television Broadcast

Important, I. M. (Producer). (1990, November 1). The nightly news hour [Television broadcast]. New York, NY: Central Broadcasting Service.

Music & Radio Recordings/Podcasts

Music Recording

Taupin, B. (1975). Someone saved my life tonight [Recorded by Elton John]. On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy [CD]. London, England: Big Pig Music Limited.

Audio Podcast

Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from

Static Digital Objects

Map, Retrieved Online

Lewis County Geographic Information Services (Cartographer). (2002). Population density, 2000 U.S. Census [Demographic map]. Retrieved from